Written by Robert Colls
This article was first published in Briefings for Brexit and we republish with their kind permission
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In Orwell’s essay ‘Politics and the English Language’ (1946), he pointed out how slovenly language made for slovenly politics. In Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), he warned also against the manipulation of language in order to misrepresent reality. Airstrip One, you will recall, is presiding over the misrepresentation of the English people to the point of their own extinction. Three years of Brexit has given us plenty examples of slovenliness and misrepresentation. In the mouths of Remainers, ‘crashing out’ and ‘off the cliff edge’ have long since replaced plausible economic speculation. In the mouths of Leavers, ‘taking back control’ has long since replaced consideration of what we will be able to control after Brexit that we couldn’t control before (immigration for instance).
We have ‘Hard Right’ for governments that believe in borders, unless they are EU borders, and we have ‘Populists’ for democrats, unless they are People’s Vote democrats. ‘Peace in Northern Ireland’ invokes not peace but the veiled threat of violence. ‘Deal or No Deal’ is the question now, but never was the question then. A ‘People’s Vote’ means a second referendum. ‘Trust the People’ a second time means not trusting them the first time. ‘Integrity of the single market’ means integrity of the European state, if it is a state, and it is they who want an Irish border not the British.
Johnson did not ‘Shut Down Democracy’, he is not a Nazi and we do not live in a Fascist state. He applied a constitutional convention to breaking point in order to secure his own political advantage. As did his opponents. Nor did the government ‘break the law’. They broke a law that had yet to be made (by one court) by keeping to a course of action that had recently been upheld (by another). Plenty of constitutional lawyers reckoned these were not proper matters of law anyway. If you want to insist that they broke the law regardless, you could say they broke a law that has itself been deemed unconstitutional by at least four professors of law I have managed to read and understand. As in war – and sadly this is a war – everything is simple but nothing is easy.
As for inflammatory language – and some of the above is inflammatory and Ken Loach is inflammatory – both sides match each other although that does not make them wrong. Boris has a voice, he is the Prime Minister, and you can see why his opponents would want to control his narrative as the saying goes. Labour decided not to have a voice on Brexit when it decided to abandon working-class patriotism and declare itself the party of middle-class dissent.
Speaking clearly has consequences. Not speaking clearly has consequences too. Speaking double has consequences as long as you can work out what they are. Mr Johnson has been speaking double since he came to power: one tongue for Parliament where he expected to fail; the other sharper tongue for the electorate where he expects to win. Labour meanwhile have taken Orwell’s idea of ‘Doublethink’ (“the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one’s mind simultaneously”) to doctoral level.
Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four described the degradation of a nation by the systematic degradation of its language. Language was being nullified and ways of being human with it. Big Brother wanted to control everyone, including Nature, by the manipulation of language, truth and logic. Orwell called propagandists ‘gramophones’ because in his day, political debate was led by a few score men at the top while the rest listened on. This is not what is happening now. We live in a world of news, fake news, marketing messages, tweets, facebook and curated opinion – all salami-sliced into each other, not easy to discern and tedious to trace. There is no Big Brother, only Cambridge Analytica.
However, like Winston Smith, we also live in an age of binaries that signal whether we live or die. Truth or Untruth, Party or Prole, Leave or Remain, Woke or Unwoke calls us up and calls us out. No in-betweenies or bit-of- eachies. No know nothings. No maybes, live and let lives, or think agains. Absolutely no traditions. Not mindful of history but very keen on virtue, our New Puritans want to make the world over again by policing how we speak and keeping a ledger of what we have said. No one is safe from this, including them, but in Boris’s case we know the triggers. ‘Privileged white guy’ is not a good start. ‘Racism’ would be the end. ‘Mysogyny’ is being trailed. ‘Humbug’ will stay with him forever. Every Woke knows what ‘Bullingdon’ means. ‘Crimethink’ is Boris’s original condition. In order to be redeemed, he must stop himself short. He must say sorry to the nation. He must admit his guilt to the BBC. He must atone for who he is. Orwell, another old Etonian middle-class white guy, knew all about this.
What started out as talks with “our friends and partners” in Europe has turned out to be a war of ourselves against ourselves. We are living, therefore, in a Hobbesian moment where we need to act decisively. It is certainly the case that our politics is re-inventing itself and it won’t be the first time that our least deserving party is re-inventing itself first, but in the meantime, behind all the tactics and bad faith, the basic facts have not changed. Parliament asked those it represented what it should do and for a variety of reasons – all factional – it refused to do it. Orwell said we were a family with the wrong members in charge. Now we look like a family (Meet The Brexits) with no one in charge. In the words of the great Hank Williams, we have to move it on over.
Robert Colls is Professor of Cultural History at De Montfort University, and the author of ‘George Orwell: English Rebel.’